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ABB Power Grids - Active Harmonic Filters

Active Harmonic Filters - Power Factor Correction - ABB Power Grids

Modern electrical equipment imposes stringent demands on voltage stability and power quality. The power network must be free from harmonics and other electrical disturbances.

By installing harmonic filters several benefits are obtained:

  • Higher power factor, improved voltage stability & network losses
  • Filtering of harmonics in the system
  • Reduced resonance problems / amplification of electrical disturbances.

A “clean” network also imposes much less strain on equipment and lengthens its life span. This means lower maintenance costs and lower costs for replacing worn-out equipment.

What problems can harmonics cause?

  • Increased losses, with machinery & cabling operating at increased temperatures
  • Resonance between inductive & capacitive parts of the power network
  • Malfunctioning of control systems since electronic meters, relays, etc. are matched to the fundamental frequency
  • Overloading of capacitors, leading to malfunctioning & premature aging
  • Interference with telecommunications & computers
  • Disturbances in ripple control systems
  • High currents in neutral conductors

Harmonics are not only found in industrial networks, they can also spread into the distribution network and cause problems for other power users.

The ABB Power Quality Filter (PQF) eliminates the harmonics present in the supply system. It is insensitive to large network impedance changes due to change in network topology such as paralleling of sources or switching between mains supply and generator operation.

An ABB PQF active filter is designed for installation in parallel to the polluting loads. It monitors the line current harmonics, as well as the requirements programmed by the user. It then generates for each harmonic frequency a compensation current in perfect phase opposition that effectively cancels it out. This is achieved by monitoring the line current in real time and processing the measured harmonics as digital signals in a high-power multi-DSP (Digital Signal Processor) based system.

The use of a closed loop control system in combination with the capability to select individual harmonic components makes the ABB PQF active filter the most precise active filter on the market.

The use of active harmonic filters enables installations to comply with the most stringent of harmonic regulations and guidelines such as IEEE 519, G5/4, etc.

Unlike other active filter products on the market, the ABB PQF active filters make it possible to set individual harmonic target limits as imposed by regulations.

The PQF also offers Modbus RTU communication facilities with the customer’s existing communication network, enabling the PQF to be easily monitored and controlled from a remote location.

Battery Energy Storage Systems

ABB’s Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) consists of a Power Conversion System (PCS), Energy storage batteries and a PLC based controller. The PCS, based on ABB’s bi-directional inverter, connects to the customer’s existing 400 V supply.

The lithium-ion energy storage modules are supplied by best-in-class third party battery manufacturers. The PLC controller acts as the communication interface with an existing energy management or SCADA system. Medium-voltage transformer and switchgear solutions are available if the output needs to be stepped up to 11 kV or higher.

These BESS units are installed behind the meter to provide modular and scalable solutions from 25 kW to 2 MW.

The energy storage solution provided by ABB’s Energy Storage Inverters (ESI) can support network power quality by improving low power factor, balancing voltage and mitigating harmonics. The benefits are reduced energy bills, less downtime and lower maintenance requirements. In addition, the BESS is also suitable for some key applications that enable access to energy markets, ancillary services and energy savings.

Maintaining Voltage & Frequency

By quickly bridging the gap between the demand and supply of electrical power, an energy storage system (ESS) helps network operators in maintaining their grid frequency and voltages within acceptable limits.

Peak Shaving for Commercial & Industrial Loads

Peak load periods coinciding for several consumers can lead to a shortage of power from the utility supplier. This may result in temporary overloading of the network and even tripping of some sensitive loads. A BESS can be used for peak demand shaving, resulting in a uniform load distribution around the complete load cycle. It saves costs for the consumer by reducing their peak load demand and helps the utilities as they see a more uniform load distribution throughout the load cycle.

Renewable Energy Self-Consumption

Energy storage can also be used to store energy at times when renewable energy (solar, wind) is plentiful or low demand and return it during peak demand periods. This can keep consumption in check in response to dynamic pricing during a trial period or to alleviate the impact of peak energy penalty-pricing under the new DCP 161 legislation.

Islanding Operation

ABB’s BESS solution can operate in island mode, so is ideal for remote areas or in those locations where network power interruptions are common. In the case of an outage, the facility can turn to the backup energy to ensure unbroken power, whether for process uptime or customer safety and comfort.

Click the PDF image to view the technical information in full

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